The main types of terrier, that are still worked regularly to ground are, the Border, the Jack Russell and the Lakeland, (Patterdales, Fells these are different strains of Lakeland)
The Bedlington is another of the northern terriers, allthough most are K.C. registered and do not work .They are a shadow of the original Bedlingtons that was supposed to have been a real deamon to work.The majority of working bedlingtons now doing earth work are dogs that have a percentage of other blood in them , either Lakeland , Border or Fell.
The border terrier is one of the northern terriers.
The Border Terrier is an old breed with origins going back pre 1880, bred in the north of England, between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders, this breed was solely designed to work the rugged terrain of the fells and crags.
It is said the that the Border Terrier actually originates in"Coquetdale" and was firstly called the "Coquetdale Terrier" the name changed to Border Terrier in 1880. They were the only Terrier used by the Border Foxhounds, to bolt, kill or draw Foxes that had been run to ground, their confirmation made them an ideal dog to work difficult terrain along with the hounds. Mr Jacob Robson Snr, of the Border Foxhounds, wrote in 1912: "We don't like them too heavy for the hill country and the light coloured ones are prefered. Hounds must be fast and when they are lightly built they last much longer, for heavy hounds do not last long on the hills and are too slow" Likewise for terriers, they also ran with the hounds, they were never carried unless injured, their racy appearance made it easy to keep up with the hunt.
Their working abilities quickly spread and their aptitude for working Badger and Otter as well as Fox was renowned, they were used by the Northern Counties Otterhounds and subsequently other packs too.
Over the years the Border Terrier has largely gone unchanged, the look and type of the breed remains and as in the beginning they have a terrific following. Of recent years the Border has been noted for other abilities too, being a good retriever and finder of injured game, it does however retain all its original qualities and still works Fox admirably.
The appearance is that of a hardy racy animal, with a thick double "Tweedy" looking coat that comes in several colours,Grizzle and tan,Blue and tan and Red being the usual colours, the once seen Wheaten is said to be no more. The head is "Like that of an Otter" a distinctive head among terriers, there isn't terrier with this shaped head,all the others favoring a longer leaner head. A comparison is shown below. To this day the first line in the breed standard reads "essentially a working Terrier" Long may it remain.
Contributed by Dawn Bladen
The Border Terrier Breed Standard
Revised by The Kennel Club 1986
General appearance: Essentially a working terrier.
Characteristics: Capable of following a horse, combining activity with gameness
Temperament: Active and game as previously stated.
Head and Skull: Head like that of an otter. Moderately broad in skull, with short strong muzzle. Black nose preferable, but liver or flesh coloured one not a serious fault.
Eyes: Dark with a keen expression
Ears: Small, V-shaped; of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek.
Mouth: Scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Level bite acceptable. Undershot or overshot a major fault and highly undesirable.
Neck: Of moderate length.
Forequarters: Forelegs straight, not too heavy in bone.
Body: Deep, narrow, fairly long. Ribs carried well back, but not oversprung, as a terrier should be capable of being spanned by both hands behind the shoulder. Loins strong.
Feet: Small with thick pads.
Tail: Moderately short; fairly thick at base, then tapering. Set high, carried gaily, but not curled over the back.
Gait: Has the soundness to follow a horse.
Coat: Harsh and dense; with close undercoat. Skin must be thick.
Colour: Red, wheaten, grizzle and tan or blue and tan.
Size: Dogs 5.9 - 7.1 kg (13-15½ lb.); Bitches 5.1- 6.4 kg (11½ - 14 lb.).
Faults: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on the terrier’s ability to work, and the health and welfare of the dog.
Note: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
A border at work, doing what he was bred for.
That shovel must have taken some stick!
The Jack Russell.
Jack Russells are a primarily white bodied terrier, with brown, black or tan patches on them.
They are developed from the hunt terriers of the Shires, used to bolt foxes for the mounted hunts to chase.
They were named after the Reverend John Russell a famous hunting cleric who lived 1795 - 1883 in and around north Devon. who purchased a white bodied terrier while at Oxford college. When he returned to Devon, this dog was used on a number of hunt terrier bitches, the founding stock of the Jack Russell.
An offshoot of the Jack Russell is the Parson Jack Russell. This came about from an argument between the show breeders, two clubs and K.C recognition.
A lot of the Parsons have White Lakeland in them a fact their owners will decry!
The terrier must present a lively, active and alert appearance. It should impress with its fearless and happy disposition. It should be remembered that the Jack Russell is a working terrier and should retain the instincts. Nervousness, cowardice or over-aggressiveness should be discouraged, and it should always appear confident.
A sturdy, tough terrier, very much on its toes all the time, measuring between 10'"and 15" at the withers. The body length must be in proportion to the height, and it should present a compact, balanced image, always being in solid, hard condition.
Should be well balanced and in proportion to the body. The skull should be flat, of moderate width at the ears, narrowing to the eyes. There should be a defined stop but not over pronounced. The length of muzzle from the nose to the stop should be slightly shorter than the distance from the stop to the occiput. The nose should be black. The jaw should be powerfull and well boned with strongly muscled cheeks.
Should be almond shaped, dark in colour and full of life and intelligence.
Small "V" shaped drop ears carried forward close to the head and of moderate thickness.
Strong teeth with the top slightly overlapping the lower
Clean and muscular, of good length, gradually widening at the shoulders.
The shoulders should be sloping well laid back, fine at points and clearly cut at the withers. Forelegs should be strong and straight boned with joints in correct alignment. Elbows hanging perpendicular to the body and working free of the sides.
The chest should be shallow, narrow and the front legs set not too widely apart, giving an athletic, rather than heavily chested appearance. As a guide only, the chest should be small enough to be easily spanned behind the shoulders, by average sized hands, when the terrier is in a fit, working condition. The back should be strong, straight and, in comparision to the height of the terrier, give a balanced image. The loin should be slightly arched.
Should be strong and muscular, well put together with good angulation and bend of stifle, giving plenty of drive and propulsion. Looking from behind, the hocks must be straight.
Round, hard padded, of cat-like appearance, neither turning in or out.
Should be set rather high, carried geily and in proportion to the body length, usually about four inches long, providing a good hand-hold.
Smooth, without being so sparse as not to provide a certain amount of protection from the elements and undergrowth. Rough or broken coated, without being woolly.
White should predominate with tan, black or brown markings. Brindle markings are unacceptable.
Movement should be free, lively, well coordinated with straight action in front and behind.
Taken from the JRTCGB
The Lakeland is an old type of Terrier from the Lake district. They varied greatly in size and confirmation and as such were not known as a breed until 1925, prior to this they were known as the Coloured Working Terrier (as distinct from the predominatly White Fox Terrier ) and by the local names of Fell Terrier and Patterdale Terrier.
These went on to become the Kennel Club registered dogs, that later had Welsh blood added to them to give them a blacker coat.
Their are some strains of pure working Lakeland that look smart but these dogs differ from the KC dogs in that they are not so firery with other dogs.
The working lakelands are called Fells Patterdales or Borderlakelands these are distinct types of terrier, so unless breed as a type/family/line, they will,do throw different types in the same litter.
The smooth coated type of lakeland ,as bred by Nuttal (Old Type) Gould and Harcombe. Are the sort most people class as Patterdales
Most people class the broken coated type as fells.
After a sucsessful Dig.
The terriers that do not conform to the typical working lakeland are usually classed as Borderlakelands.
Medium sized, full of quality with strong bones and powerful cheek and jaw muscles. Slight bull terrier characteristics are encouraged as is a well defined stop.
Ears Dropped, rounded, and neatly pinned to head. Prick or rose ears are not encouraged.
Eyes Dark, prominent and oval, set widely apart.
Muzzle Strong, Lips close with no excessive looseness. Teeth strong and even with full scissor bite.
Neck Strong, elegant, especially in the case of bitches, and well carried.
Shoulders and forelegs Strong, well laid back and developed without excessive muscle tone. Forelegs should be set square and straight and not tied in . Feet should be well shaped, and dense. No resemblance of bend in front.
Back, hindquarters and hind legs Back and loins, muscular, strong and well coupled, with well defined muscle development. Hindquarters should be lengthy and strong, with a well set on tail. Hind legs - second thigh should be strong and muscular. Hocks clean and flat, turning neither inwards nor outwards. The hind leg must not be too bent. feet well shaped and dense.
Body Square in appearance when viewed from side i.e. distance of shoulder to ground. Depth through the heart should be easily spanned by two hands placed just behind the shoulders.
Tail Carried high. Preferably docked and balanced to the size of the dog. Curled tails not encouraged.
Coat Short, close and without guard hairs, yet with the ability to withstand weather. Loose / broken coats not acceptable.
Colour and markings A bright fiery red tan with white. Full cape markings from head to tail, or a broad collar of white between head and shoulders are encouraged. Underside of the belly and chest, front and rear legs should be white although flecking is acceptable. Head either solid colour, or with stripe or badger marked. Red self -coloured terriers, tri-coloured, brindle black or black and white terriers should not be encouraged.
Height Maximum height to the shoulder, dog or bitch 14 inches.
Movement Should be light ,energetic, free, true and forcible and cover the ground. Hocks should be flexed under the body with straight powerful leverage.
Faults Undershot or overshot mouths. Unsoundness, coarseness or displaying a hereditary fault.